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Palmer Family British Military Careers

by John P. DuLong, Ph.D.

rlobe.gif (930 bytes) Introduction
rlobe.gif (930 bytes) Major James Palmer, Sr.
rlobe.gif (930 bytes) Lieutenant Colonel James Palmer, Jr.
rlobe.gif (930 bytes) Major General Henry Wellington Palmer, C. B.
rlobe.gif (930 bytes) Lieutenant Colonel Henry Wellington Tuthill Palmer, D. S. O.
rlobe.gif (930 bytes) Captain Henry Palmer
rlobe.gif (930 bytes) Conclusion
rlobe.gif (930 bytes) References


My wife, Patricia Anne (McGuinness) DuLong, has been kind enough to let me borrow her Palmer ancestors so I can research their military careers.  To refresh the ancestral memory of my in-laws who read this page, you descend from the Palmers because James Hubert McGuinness married Emma Palmer, the daughter of Thomas Palmer and Margaret O'Toole around 1879 in Jackson, Jackson County, Michigan. 

In the course of learning about the Palmers, I have come to find them a fascinating group of men who represent the best and worst of the British military during the nineteenth century.  Without men like the Palmers in the military—and the Anglican church—the British empire could not have operated.  For me this interest in them is somewhat awkward.  My Gaelic-Irish, Acadian, and French Canadian ancestors were all victims of British imperialism.  Likewise, the McGuinnesses were more likely to be supporters of Irish independence than believers in the value of the empire.  After all, John Parnell McGuinness, the son of James Hubert McGuinness and Emma Palmer, was given his middle name to honor Charles Stewart Parnell the great Irish nationalist leader.  Men like the Palmers were the enemies of Irish independence and supporters of the British empire.  This is truely a case of one man's hero is another man's villan.  For the Palmers would be seen as good examples of sturdy British officers who helped build an empire that stretched across the globe.

Clearly, the Palmer Letters (1841-1883) show that the Palmers were not a tolerant group towards Catholics and natives.  Despite their limitations in our modern-day eyes, the Palmers are still an exciting group to investigate.   We get an intimate peak into British history through their careers.  They are worthy of study.

It is interesting to note that the Palmer name still lives on in the McGuinness family.  David Bek McGuinness and Pauline Alberta (Curtis) McGuinness named one of their sons James Palmer McGuinness and he in turn gave the same name to his son.

This report is just a summary of my initial findings.  Placing it here makes it convenient for me to review my notes anywhere I can connect to the web.  It also gives others a chance to look at my findings to date and to assist in the investigation.   In this regard, I want to thank Iain Kerr (2000) for his comments and suggestions regarding this web page.  I hope to do more research on these men as time permits.  In particular, I hope to do a special web page discussing the important role the Palmers and related families played in the Anglican Church of Ireland. 

My area of expertise is tracing French military ancestors in New France, so the Palmers, the British army, and Anglo-Irish society are all new to me.  Please forgive me if I misunderstand some points.  I am still learning. 

So, without further delay, welcome to the British military world of Major James Palmer, Sr., and his sons Lieutenant Colonel James Palmer, Jr., Thomas Palmer,  and Major General Henry Wellington Palmer, C. B., , his grandson Lieutenant Henry Wellington Tuthill Palmer, and, lastly, his cousin Captain Henry Palmer.  For a diagram showing the relationships between all these people just click on the chart button:

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Major James Palmer, Sr.

He was born about 1780-1781 in Ireland.  We know his approximate birth year because he says he was 65 in a letter dated 14 August 1845 and 66 on 7 May 1847 (Palmer Letters 1841-1883).  His age will be crucial when you see how young he was at certain events in his personal and military life.  James was the son of Rev. Henry Palmer, M. A., Archdeacon of Ossory, and Eleanor Smyth.  Until he joined the military, most of the Palmers had made their career in the Church of Ireland (Leslie 1933). 

We know that James was married twice.  He was first married to a mysterious Mrs. Moore, the widow of Judge Moore (Vesey Genealogy  Late Eighteenth Century; Anonymous Letter 2000).  This marriage posses several problems that so far have defied solution.  We know that his son James Palmer, Jr., was born at sea in 1797, while James was serving in the Caribbean.  This would make James only about 16 or 17 when he became a father!  Very young for a man to marry in the past.  He was also shouldering the responsibilities of a captain at a very young age as well.  During this period it was not unusual for commissions to be purchased by a father for his son at a very young age  (Farwell 1972, 25).   However, it was not a wise career move for a young officer to marry.  According to Farewell (1981, 233), "The rule of thumb was that subalterns may not marry, captains might marry, majors should marry, and lieutenant-colonels must marry."  Given this background, it might be the case that he sired an illegitimate son, but this has yet to be verified.  There is a marriage license for a James Palmer and Ellen Moore in 1800, Diocese of Dublin.  This would make James 19 or 21, still young, but a more likely age for a marriage.  Is this your James?  If so, then what was Mrs. Moore's maiden name?  Who was the mother of James, Jr.?  Was he illegitimate?  Was James married to another woman before Mrs. Moore?  As you can see, more research is required.

James married for a second time to Eliza (or Elizabeth) Nash, daughter of Llewellyn Nash and Priscilla Deane Spread of County Cork (J. G. White [1905-1918] 1969, 3:105-112).  Patricia and I had estimated that they were married around 1820.  However, we found a marriage record for a James Palmer and Elizabeth Nash from the Diocese of Cork and Ross, County Cork, Ireland, with a year of 1827.  This would be after the birth of Thomas William Palmer in 1822.  We suspect that this is a transcription error and should read 1821.   Internal evidence in the Palmer Letters (1841-1883) indicates that Thomas William Palmer, Henry Wellington Palmer, and Priscilla Palmer were siblings and that James Palmer, Jr., was a half-brother.  We are in the process of verifying the date.  Obviously, further research is required to clarify the structure of James's two families. 

As the table below will show, the military career of James, Sr., was not brilliant.   He only served on one active campaign in the West Indies.  After that he served in reserve outfits in Ireland.  Was his health ruined in the Caribbean?   Did he damage his chances for advancement because of his relationship with Mrs. Moore?

After leaving the service in 1814, James, Sr., became an administrator in the Irish prison system in 1822.  We have yet to learn what occupied his time from 1815 to 1821.  Somehow during that period he managed to acquire enough money to purchase the former palace of the Anglican Archbishop of Dublin in Tallaght, outside of Dublin, in 1822 (Handcock 1899, 27, 32-33, 38).  The entire property was valued at just over 202£.   The palace was in a decayed condition and part of the purchase was the promise to tear it down in order to insure it never became a Catholic monastery.  James, Sr., had the old building torn down and used the stones to make a new mansion called Tallaght House, a school-house, several cottages in the town, and repaired the neighborhood roads.   The property was sold by 1835 when the Right Honorable Sir John Lentaigne repaired the surviving tower from the adjacent castle.  The Rev. Henry Palmer, brother of James, Sr., saved the stone carved coat-of-arms from over the palace's fire place.   According to his son, also named Rev. Henry Palmer, who wrote the following in a letter dated 21 October 1885, to Rev. C. T. McCready, D.D. (32 n. 1):

I perfectly remember, when quite a boy, some sixty years ago, being taken up to Tallaght by my father to the handsome modern mansion, which my uncle, Major Palmer, Inspector-General of Prisons, built, having pulled down the fine old palace....  My dear father saved, as spolia opima out of the ruins, the noble chimney-piece in question, and went to the expense of having it brought by sear to Waterford, and thence here [Tubrid Church, Diocese of Lismore, Ireland], and erecting it in his church.  I remember a mitre came with it; but it was not thought becoming to have it replaced on the summit of the apex after having fallen from it high estate!

Ultimately, in 1842, the subsequent owner leased the mansion to some Catholic Dominicans who now own the building which still stands in what has now become a suburb of Dublin southwest of the city.

Late in life something happened to his fortunes.  In a letter from Hungerford Hoskyns [brother of Edwin Bennet Hoskyns and a friend of the Palmers] to John Arkwright, dated 4 January 1843, Dublin (Hoskyn Letters 1832-1857), mentions: "You are indeed the only person from whom I have the least expectation now; for my friend Major Palmer has got into some scrape lately and lost his influence here--and I know he never will be able to do anything for me."  Later, in another letter to Arkwright, dated 6 April 1843, Dublin, Hoskyns says "Yesterday a letter came from young [Thomas] Palmer whom I settled near my brother Edwyn's the summer before last, giving some particulars with respect to the sad castrophe [sic] to his father.  But he evidently takes for granted that Chandos has written to us on the subject and consequently says but little of it."  By the 1840s, James, Sr., was the Inspector General of Prisons and Lunatic Asylums.  What happened?  Could this situation be a result of  the struggled with Dr. White about inspecting asylums (see the table below for details)?  He would retire from his job in 1846.  Was this planned or premature?  We know from a letter he wrote to his son Thomas, dated 26 February 1848 (Palmer Letters 1841-1883), that he expected an income of 150£ a year and that he thought this would keep him and his wife well.  However, in the same letter he mentions paying off  some debts of at least 500£ and jokes about hitting on a lottery ticket.

James, Sr., was a strange mix.  On one hand he advocated liberal reforms for prisons (Palmer 1832).   On the other hand he had an extreme dislike for Catholics.  In a letter to his friend James Buchanon, dated 14 August 1845 (Palmer Letters 1841-1883), he states: "In this land we have nothing but strife, Popery [Catholics], & follywell for us there is another beyond the Flood."  To his son Thomas he wrote on 26 February 1848 (Palmer Letters 1841-1883) the following:

Poor Ireland is as bad as ever in starvation & wicked ways.  Popery & potatoes are the ruin of Ireland.  If both were abolished, she would recover herself—In a very few years say from 4 to 8. 

Clearly, when he wrote this last letter, he must not have known that his son Thomas was soon to marry, if not already married to, a Catholic woman!

James died on 1 May 1850, Hyde Park, London, England, and was formerly of Baggot St., Dublin, Ireland (Annual Register 1850).  According to Henry Wellington Palmer, who wrote to his brother Thomas Palmer to announce the death of their father, James died with a poor estate (Palmer Letters 1841-1883):

14th of May 1850

My Dear Tom -

I regret to have to write you word that the poor governor departed this life on the 1st of this month.  His death was rather sudden as although I came here the instant I heard of his danger yet the poor man had died the day before I got there.  Uncle and Aunt Margaret & Mr. Taaffe [Robert Taaffe was the husband of Priscilla Palmer, the sister of Thomas and Henry Wellington, and a half-sister of James, Jr.] came over in time for his interment.  Mamma & Prissy got Marquer's [Domingos Egidio Marques was married to Priscilla Deane Nash, the sister of Eliza Nash].  Who have been exceedingly kind so far both in promises & acts toward both of them.  I regret also to tell you that he not only did not leave a penny after him but had anticipated his next quarter which poor Taaffe is at the loss of--the post goes out for America this day.  So I must conclude although indeed If I had even plenty of time I could scarcely say more.  I wish you would write to me directed to the care of Mr. Taaffe & as soon as I get back to Clonmel where I am now stationed I will write to you more fully.  In the mean time believe me ever

Your affectionate brother


The military and prison administration service for James Palmer, Sr., follows:

Dates Rank Service
1794 Ensign 105th Regiment of Foot (alias Volunteers of Ireland, 1781-1783).  At Dublin the entire period.  James would only have been about 13-14 when he joined the service!
18 April 1794   105th Regiment of Foot, formed, stationed in Dublin. Colonel Gordon Forbes, commander.
24 November 1794 Lieutenant 2nd Battalion, 83rd Regiment of Foot, stationed at the Dublin and Dundee barracks.
1795   107th Regiment of Foot, formed on 8 April 1794.  It is unclear when James, Sr., served with this unit, but it was between his service with the 83rd and the 14th.
30 April 1795 Captain Made Captain in the Army. Departed service in 107th to go to 105th.   I find it amazing that he would be a captain at 14-15.  First mention in the Army List (1796) refers to his rank.
2 September 1795   Started service in West Indies.  He was part of a 15,000 man force under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby.  The mission of the campaign was to reduce the Caribbean Islands, that is, to make them British.  The force landed in Jamaica in early 1796 after first being driven back by a storm.
5 September 1795 Captain 14th Bedfordshire Regiment of Foot, formed 5 September 1795. Colonel George Hotham, commander.
From 26 April 1796 to 26 May 1796   Capture of St. Lucia from the French.  The 14th was involved in this action.  Major General John Moore, Abercromby's "ablest lieutenant" was left in charge of the island.  Moore would eventually become Sir John Moore and a renowned leader of light infantry in the Peninsula campaign.  Abercromby moved on to relieve St. Vincent and Grenada.
About February 1797   James, Sr., must have been with Mrs. Moore around this time as his son James, Jr., is born at sea on 5 November 1797.  Was he back in Ireland or England at that time?  Or was she in the West Indies?
17 February 1797   Capture of Trinidad from the Spanish.  The 14th was involved in this action.  Abercromby left Colonel Picton as governor of Trinidad.
From 18 April 1797 to 1 May 1797   The 14th was one of the regiments used in the British attack on San Juan, Puerto Rico.  The Spanish repulsed this attack. 
1 January 1798 Captain James, Sr., is no longer listed as the junior Captain in the Regiment.
7 January 1799   Stopped military service in West Indies. Started sick leave.  Unsure where he recuperated.  Perhaps back in Ireland.  About 41 percent of the white British soldiers died of fevers in 1796 (Chartrand 1996, 3).  Perhaps he was suffering from malaria or yellow fever.
June 1799   Stopped sick leave after six months.
5 August 1799 Captain Assigned to the1st West India Regiment of Foot as a Captain, Colonel John Whyte, commander.  This regiment and the 2nd West India were created on 24 April 1795.  The soldiers were Black slaves! They had to serve for a set number of years and then gained their freedom. It was formed by assimilating the Malcolm's Black Rangers, St. Vincent's Black Rangers, and Black Carolina Corps.  Eventually, there would be twelve West India Regiments, which unlike other native units, were on the permanent British establishment and roll of regiments.
7 January 1800   Started half-pay.  There is some confusion when he started half-pay.   The Army List (1801) says he was on half-pay starting in 1795.
1801   The Army List (1801 and 1802) says he was "late York Rangers."  This was a unit of convicts sent to the West Indies.  James, Sr., was probably only temporarily assigned to it.
July 1803   Stopped half-pay.
9 July 1803 Captain 6th Battalion Reserve. Colonel James Durham, commander. James' seniority is 23 out of 29 officers, most receiving their rank at the same time.
25 April 1805 Major Brevet Major, 3rd Garrison. Battalion. Served for one and a half years. Colonel Hon. Thomas Maitland. The Army List (1806) shows that he became part of this unit on 25 February 1805. Colonel James Lord Forbes, appointed commander on 19 July 1807. 
December 1805 Major Brigade Major on the Irish Staff.
25 April 1808 Major Major, full rank in the army.  The Brevet and Brigade ranks of Major had been temporary.  Even though he was now a Major, he was still an acting Captain with the 3rd Garrison Battalion.
May 1809   Left the Irish Staff.  The Army List (1809) shows Palmer's seniority as 611 out of 757.
24 May 1809   Assigned to the North British Staff. Noted for having some knowledge of French.
1813   The Army List (1813) shows his seniority was 176 out of 755.
1814 Major

Retired sometime between 12 February 1813 and 10 February 1814. The Army List (1814) mentions Major Palmer, "96 F.", but he is not listed with the 96th Regiment of Foot in the Army Lists

Brevet-Major James Palmer, from the 3rd Garrison Battalion, to Captain of a Company in the 96th, replacing Foster, who exchanges, 24 March 1813. On 6 May 1813, Lieutenant J. F. Gell to be Captain of a Company in the 9ths, by purchase, replacing Palmer, who retires. (Military Panorama, 1813).

James, Sr., must have been frustrated in waiting to move up in seniority.  According to the Army List, in 1810 he was 542 of 764, in 1811 he was 392 of 748, in 1812 he was 213 of 759, and finally in 1813 he was 176 out of 755.  By 1814, Napoleon had been defeated and was on Elba.  Despite the excitement of Waterloo, the long wars with France were nearly over and James, Sr., must have realized he was no longer needed in the military.  He had served 20 years in the military. 

1822 Inspector-
Started service as Inspector-General of Prisons and Lunatic Asylums of Ireland.  His office was in Dublin Castle.
1832   Wrote A Treatise on the Modern System of Governing Gaols, Penitentiaries and Houses of Correction.... (Palmer 1832), in which he argues the liberal point that the purpose of a prison is to prevent crime and reform the criminal and not for revenge!
1841   He has a conflict with Dr. Francis White, a surgeon, over the inspection of lunatic asylums.  White argued that the inspectors were not doing a thorough job, that their visits were known beforehand, and that they had no medical expertise.   James, Sr., despised White and referred to him in a letter to his son Thomas, dated 4 May 1842 (Palmer Letters 1841-1883), as "... a Roman & a nasty disagreeable man—Self conceited to a degree...."
1846   Retired as Inspector-General.
Sources: Army List; Bunt (1981); Chartrand (1996, 17-18); Finnanne (1981, 41); Stephens (1885-1901); Palmer (1832); Palmer Letters (1841-1883); Statement of the Service of Brevet Major James Palmer (1809); A. S. White (1960).

Note: While researching these men I have learned that officer absenteeism was a problem across the British army, but was particularly an issue of regiments assigned to the West Indies (Buckley 1979, 32-34).  Officers would be assigned to a regiment and would not join it promptly.  They would try and exchange their posting to an undesirable regiment with a different destination, something more to their liking.  Also, it appears that some officers may have departed their regiments ahead of schedule.  In some cases this was due to illness or other barely acceptable excuses.   This seems to the be the case with some of the Palmer military appointments.  

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Lieutenant Colonel James Palmer, Jr.

Very little is known about James, Jr., the son of Major James Palmer, Sr., and an unknown woman.  His birth was at sea on 5 November 1797.  He might have been illegitimate. He married Marie Wilkins on 19 November 1818 at White Hall Battingly (probably in County Wicklow), Ireland.  His will was probated on 13 September 1879. He had been living at Torquay, County Devon, England. His will was proved at the Principal Registry by Ellen Hanrahan of 50 Richmond Place, Dublin, Widow, the sole-executrix. The effects were valued at under £300 (O'Byrne 2001).

There is a remoteness in the relationship between James, Jr., and the rest of the family.  His father says in a letter to his son Thomas, dated 26 February 1848 (Palmer Letters 1841-1883), that:

Captain P. is again gone to Sierra Leon.  We have not heard from him but wife & children are with him.  If he lives he will soon be Major.

James, Jr., was stationed in West Africa with the 3rd West Indies in 1848.  Why would a father, writing to a son, refer to another son as Captain P. and not as James or Jim?  Moreover, why does he fail to mention James, Jr., in his other letters to Thomas but does mention Henry Wellington and Priscilla frequently?

His brother Henry Wellington, writing to Thomas, in a surviving fragment of an undated letter (probably written after 1850, Palmer Letters 1841-1883) says:

I gave your letter to James.—He is a queer fellow, very odd, but very like our poor Father in appearance; I know not what has become of his children (he will not speak about them, & I fear they went to the bad) except Ellen, who is married to an officer in the Canadian Rifles, who was a sergeant in my Regiment, When I joined, a good sort of but a Roman Catholic, which of course James does not like.

There does not appear to be much affection between Henry Wellington and James, Jr.   Certainly, nothing like the relationship between Henry Wellington and Thomas as evident in other preserved letters.   Nevertheless, we can be confident that James, Jr., is a brother of Thomas and Henry Wellington because of the following letter he wrote to William O'Toole, the brother of Margaret O'Toole, the widow of his brother (or more likely half-brother) Thomas:

57 Belgrave Square
Dublin February 17th—68

Dear Sir,

I am one of the brothers of poor Mr. Thomas Palmer—Mr. Taaffe handed to me your letter and I regretted much to hear of the death of my brother.   The letter written by Mr. Palmer which you speak of was never received by any one here.  I had a letter lately from my brother Major Palmer who is a Major of the 90th Regiment in the East Indies.  He was well at that time.  I send to you his address for Mrs. Palmer in America and I shall write to the Major by the next mail and tell him of his brother's death and if you will by return post let me know Mrs. Palmer's address in America I will write to her[.]

I remain
Yours Truly
Js Palmer
Lt. Colonel

Wm O'Toole

Address to me as above on the other side


Major Henry W. Palmer
90th Regiment
East Indies

Again, note the distance.  He says he will tell Henry Wellington of "his brother's death" not our brother's death.  Of course, James, Jr., does write that he is "one of the brothers of poor Mr. Thomas Palmer" and he refers to Thomas and Henry Wellington as his brothers and not his half-brothers.   We do know that Henry Wellington was the half-brother of James, Jr., for sure.  The letters do not provide clear proof that James, Jr., and Thomas were half-brothers, but the age between them and the fact that Major Palmer was married twice suggest that they were.

James, Jr., spent most of his military career in the West Indies and West Africa.   According to Buckley (1998, xiii-xvi), the British army in the West Indies has been a neglected topic for military historians.  The Caribbean was once an important area of colonial activity for the British with rich sugar islands, but it was a disliked assignment due to the prevalence of illness among the troops sent to the islands.  Furthermore, an appointment to the West India regiments was not prestigious.  According to Buckley (1979, 166 n. 66), "The stigma associated with these corps became self-perpetuating; even at the end of the nineteenth century, cadets who passed lowest out of Sandhurst [the British equivalent of West Point] were posted to the West India Regiments."  One wonders if his father was instrumental in getting this appointment for his son to his former regiment?  Was this the best James, Sr., could work out for his son?

I have flushed out the following table with some details regarding the West India regiments to help you understand the context of these amazing regiments consisting of slaves who served the British Crown faithfully and well.  I have placed this information with James, Jr., because the connection that James, Sr., had with the 1st West India Regiment was tenuous.

Dates Rank Service
1805   1st West India Regiment received the "Dominica" battle honor.
1807   Abolition of the slave trade in British colonies.  However, contraband slaves taken from captured slave ships were often forced into the West India regiments.
1809   1st West India Regiment received the "Martinique" battle honor.
1810   1st West India Regiment received the "Guadeloupe" battle honor.
20 April 1815 Ensign 1st West India.  His rank was obtained without purchase.  He was 17 5/12 years old when he entered the army.
From 1 June 1815 to 31 July 1818   Stationed in the West Indies.
1816   He was employed putting down an extensive slave insurrection on Barbados
6 June 1816 Lieutenant 1st West India, his rank was obtained without purchase.
8 December 1819 Lieutenant On English half-pay because of ill health.  He was exchanged without the difference (not sure what "the difference" means in this context).  The Army List (1820) says he went on half pay on 18 February 1819.
9 December 1819 Lieutenant Assigned to the Royal York Rangers on English half-pay.  This was a unit consisting of mostly of Irish and British convicts.  It was formed on 24 June 1808, sent to the West Indies, and disbanded on 24 June 1819 at Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.  It is unclear why James, Jr., would be assigned to a unit after it was dissolved.  He would be on half pay for 10 years, 9 months, and 20 days. 
About 1828   Residing at Kilmemtin[?] House, County Dublin.
28 September 1830 Lieutenant 1st West India, assigned without difference.
From 1 June 1831 to 16 March 1832   Stationed in the West Indies.
1833   Slavery is abolished in the British colonies and the slaves are emancipated.
From 12 November 1837 to 23 January 1838   Stationed in Africa (probably West Africa).  The West India Regiments were often sent to West Africa as needed.
From 24 January 1838 to 28 March 1841   Stationed in the West Indies.
23 August 1839 Captain 1st West India.  His rank was obtained without purchase.
25 August 1839 Captain Transferred to the 3rd West India.  His rank was obtained without purchase.
1841 Captain The Army List, 1841, states that he was a Captain in the 3rd West India.
From 29 March 1841 to 7 April 1841   Stationed in Africa (probably West Africa).
From 8 April 1841 to 1 November 1847   Stationed in the West Indies.
From 1 February 1848 to 24 May 1849   Stationed in Africa (probably Sierra Leon or Gambia in West Africa).
1850 Captain The Army List, 1850-1851, shows him as the senior Captain in the regiment.
From 15 October 1850 to 28 April 1850   Stationed in the West Indies.
11 November 1851 Brevet Major 3rd West India. He held the temporary rank of Major, but was only the senior Captain on the list for his unit.
From 12 November 1853 to 13 August 1858   Stationed in the West Indies. 
1858   Queen Victoria requested that her West India soldiers should be uniformed like French Zouaves.  This was a military fashion rage that was also to become popular in the United States during the Civil War.
13 August 1858 Lieutenant Colonel 3rd West India.  Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and retired the same day on full pay.  During his career he spent only 29 years and 8 months on full pay and abroad.  He spent an addition year and a half on full pay back in the British Isles (probably Ireland).  His career lasted 43 years, 3 months, and 23 days.
17 February 1868 Retired Living in Dublin.
Sources: Army List; Buckley (1979, 41, 130, 156, 180 n. 60); Chartrand (1996); Statement of the Services of James Palmer. 

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Major General Henry Wellington Palmer, C. B.

Here is the most interesting Palmer of the lot.  While his father's military career was relatively mediocre, Henry Wellington achieved the highest rank in the military among the Palmers and was made a Companion of the Order of the Bath (hence the C. B. after his name).   Yet, he certainly ended his career under very interesting circumstances. 

His middle name clearly shows the family's loyalty to one of the most important sons of the Anglo-Irish Ascendancy, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, the famous victor over Napoleon at the battle of Waterloo in 1815.  Henry Wellington would make the Army his career, he was an Irishman who commanded Scottish soldiers in India and South Africa.  And what is most striking is that he may have ended his days doubting his role in the military.

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Major General Henry Wellington Palmer and his wife
Margaret Dartnell Tuthill, about 1885.

Henry Wellington was born on 18 June 1828 at Tallaght House, County Dublin, Ireland, the son of Major James Palmer, Sr., and Eliza Nash.  His nickname in the family was "Hal."  He did not marry until late in life.  On 24 January 1885, at Dublin, he married Margaret Dartnell Tuthill.  Henry Wellington died on 14 January 1891 at Ailesbury, County Dublin, Ireland, and was buried 17 January 1891 at Mount Jerome Cemetery.

To learn more about Henry Wellington's career I thought perhaps the memoirs of the man who took over his regiment in 1878 might be informative.  I found more revealed here than I was prepared for, my hunch paid off in a surprising way.  This person was Sir Henry Evelyn Wood, who eventually became a Field Marshal in the British army.  Here I will quote excepts from Sir Henry's memoirs that refer to Henry Wellington.  Please note that Sir Henry does not refer to him directly, but only indirectly as the Colonel (the Lieutenant Colonel would be in charge of the regiment in the field and would be called the Colonel):

The Officer [Henry Wellington] commanding my Regiment [90th Perthshire] was then, and may possibly have been all his life, a "Glassite," [a person who believes that the Church should not be ruled by any covenant or government but only by Apostolic doctrine (Burton 2000)] but had latterly accepted the idea that it was immoral to fight.  All the time I was at Aldershot [England] I performed his duties on Courts Martial, as he was unwilling to take an oath.  At the end of December [1877], at his request, I accompanied him to London, when he asked that he might be allowed to remain in England, on leave, till the 1st April 1878,1 when his command would expire, and that I should take out the battalion.  He endeavoured to convey his wishes to the Adjutant-General and Military Secretary, but entirely failed to make them understand his position; indeed, I believe they imagined he was suffering under some physical ailment, for the words he frequently used were, that he "had the strongest reasons for not wishing to go into Camp."

He embarked on the 11th January [1878], and on the 27th I followed the battalion, having indeed been very unhappy since I saw them off at Southampton with the band playing "Far away."

The battalion had its complement of Lieutenant Colonel [Henry Wellington] and two Majors, I (the Senior), being on the staff, was supernumerary, so when a month later I was sent out, it was "On Special Service," with the promise given to me verbally by the Commander-in-Chief, the Adjutant-General, and the Military Secretary, confirmed in a Memorandum which was handed to General Thesiger, that I should succeed to the command on the 1st April.  But this understanding was not fulfilled.

The battalion on arriving at Cape Town was divided; five companies were sent to Fort Beaufort, where the Gaikas [an African tribe] were restless, and three companies to Utrecht, in the Transvaal.

When I got to the Amatola Mountains [South Africa], six weeks later, the five companies were gradually withdrawn from the Colonel [this would be Henry Wellington] commanding, and he remained in charge of some Hottentots [a Khoisan-speaking African pastoral people] at Fort Beaufort until June [1878], when he returned home, being retained in nominal command of the Regiment till November, when he completed his thirty years' service.

1Later he asked to remain on till November 1878, in order to complete thirty years' service, and thus get the full pension of 20s. per diem.

(Wood 1906, 1:295-296)

The contempt Sir Henry held for Henry Wellington oozes from his text.  How much can we rely on his statement.  He certainly knew Henry Wellington, but he was also the second in command, eager to take over complete command of the regiment.  This may have colored his comments. 

The regimental history for the 90th does not say anything negative about Henry Wellington (Delavoue 1880).  According to Chichester and Burges-Short (1900, 390), Henry Wellington "Served with the 74th Highlanders throughout the Kaffir war of 1851-1853. Commanded the regiment from April, 1873, took it to South Africa and commanded it in the Kaffir way of 1878—three times thanked in General Orders for his conduct in command of the operations in the Fort Beaufort District—C.B. Retired full pay. Hon. Major-General, November 1878."  It would be odd to have a man of the character outlined by Sir Henry promoted to Major General and made a Companion of the Order of the Bath at his retirement.  Although this was a fairly typical award for high-ranking officers who satisfactorily completed their term of service and retired, why would honors be bestowed on a man voicing serious doubts about the military. 

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Officers and soldiers of the 74th Highland Regiment in 1846, soon after the re-adoption of Highland dress and the Lamont tartan  (Oatts 1952-1963, 2: Front Plate).


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Uniforms of the 74th Highland Regiment, Edinburgh, 1907 (Oatts 1952-1963, 2:???).

Sir Henry's writings makes it look like your Henry Wellington became a pacifist at the end of his career.  What we lack is a statement from Henry Wellington denying this accusation.  He certainly saw action in South Africa during his career, was probably often in harms way because of minor revolts in India, and there is no record of him being a coward.  However, I think there is some truth in the idea that he had grown tired of the military.  This seems to be the case when you read the following letter he wrote to his brother Thomas (Palmer Letters 1841-1883): 

Madras Presidency
East Indies
25th May 1856

My dear Tomy

In a letter from Taaffe [their brother-in-law] received a few days ago.  He tells me that he has heard from you and that you have never received my letter written to you many months ago.  I am not however much surprised at it as the post office arrangements in this country are very imperfect and unsafe.  I find that the last letter I received from you is dated April last year, shortly after your heard of the death of our poor dear sister [Pricilla, the wife of Taaffe].  I loved her very much and miss her long and kind letters greatly.  She was almost the last link that bound us to the place we formerly could call home.  And there is now indeed little to make either of us care about ever returning I believe there is now only one of her children left[.]  I long very much to see him and hope at some future time I may be in a position to be of use to him.  Taaffe I have no doubt is the kindest of fathers as he is of friends— I have a very high opinion of him and shall always consider him one of my dearest and kindest friends, both as the husband of my dear sister and as one that has done me many kindnesses.  He had some idea of going to America or Australia but I trust he has now made up his mind to stay at home.  I think him very clever and think he must eventually succeed at his profession [a solicitor, a lawyer][.]  I was delighted to hear my dear brother that you and your wife and children were so well—depend on me my dear Thomas that should the Lord be pleased to call you before me that anything in my power shall be done for your family—but at present I am not in a position to be of use to anyone—on the contrary I am in Taaffe's and Uncle Marques's debt[,] still not a very large amount to be sure—but yet sufficient to make it a great bore—not having been able to pay them long again.  We have had very little promotion latterly but our turn will soon come again and if there is any luck I should get my Majority in very few years[.]  I have a great mind then to sell out and turn my hand to something else.  I could get from 5,000£ to 6,000£ for selling as a major.  Could I turn it to better account in America than elsewhere I am too old to commence hard work but I could do any light work and think I should rather enjoy it.  Give me your opinion and advise but say nothing to anyone about it.   To say truth I am getting rather tired of soldiering.  I have now been at it nearly ten years and although I have been very fortunate and seen the best of it (except the Crimia [sic]) yet the life is very monotonous.  [The sale of commissions would end in 1871 (Fowler and Spencer 1998, 21-22).]

I have shown all my wild oats and should now like to settle in life as a married man and the army is not fitted for the married life for many reasons[,] but chiefly because there seem very few of the ladies satisfied with one husband—convenient for bachelors but I should say a decided bore for those that have wives—My pay is good here 45£ a month but my expenses something awful.  I have not as yet been able to save any money as you are obliged on first coming to this country to contract debts unless you land with money in your pocket which was not the case with me I have consequently only been getting out of debt since I arrived here I must now try to save enough to pay Taaffe and Uncle M. although I think the latter might have made me a present of the paltry sum 150£.   However he either can't or won't so pay I must—The European War [the Crimean War] is over at last I'm glad of it as I was not fortunate enough to have been there.  I should have been a Colonel now or in my grave had I been in the Crimea when war first began[.]  I cannot say as you do that I feel ready to die—I have been a great sinner in many things.  I try to repent and pray for pardon.  Curious nearly all my sins and misfortunes have been caused by women I don't know if so is the case with others[,] but I feel that if I had married years ago I should now be a better man in every way.  It would be useless gibing you either regimental or Indian news both uninteresting to you[.]  I am at present stationed at a place called Calicut on the sea coast.  The headquarters of the regiment are on the Neilgherry Hills 150 miles form this, where I have been the last year, it is the finest climate in the world, but down here it is very hot.  I was sent here in command of 120 men as a row was expelled amongst the natives, none has however come off and I expect soon to return to headquarters.  I like my regiment as much as ever and although "I say it is as shouldn't" I think I am very much liked in it which I would not say to anyone but my brother[.]

There are now few of our old friends at home that either of us care about and I know as little about them as I dare say you do.  Direct to me—

Captain H. W. Palmer
H. M. 74th Highlanders
East Indies

It will be forwarded to me wherever I am.  The safest way would be to enclose it to Taaffe to be reposted at home.  Remember me kindly to your wife and kiss all your children for me.  I wish very much to see them and would send them some presents but the postage for such a distance would be more than anything I could send would be worth.   However the time I trust in God will come when we shall all meet once more in this poor old world.

I hope you will be able to decipher this scrawl.  I have got so into the habit of writing fast that I fear my epistles are scarcely legible.

Write soon and tell me all about yourself and family.

Seal your letter with paste, wax melts in this hot country.

Ever my dearest Thomas
Your affectionate brother


The theme of retiring and raising a family would appear in other letters as well.  It is seriously doubtful that Henry Wellington Palmer was a pacifist at the end of his military career. It is more likely that he was just an old campaigner, tired of the military life, who wanted to get out before his number was up. But he did his duty as required and was rewarded upon retirement with promotion to Major General and by being made a Companion in the Order of the Bath. Sir Henry's comments were probably motivated by professional jealousy. He saw Henry Wellington Palmer as an obstacle that blocked his promotion to commander of the 90th.

Dates Rank Service
7 August 1846 Ensign Gazetted Ensign in the Army.  To be gazetted means to have been mentioned in the London Gazette (Fowler and Spencer 1998, 19).  Henry Wellington was only 18 years old when he joined the service.  His statement of service indicates that he was an ensign with the 19th Yorkshire Regiment of Foot.   His rank was purchased.
3 February 1847 Ensign 74th Highland Regiment of Foot.  This was a light infantry regiment.   His statement of service mentions that he was exchanged.  Although it was a Highland regiment, the men wore tartan trews and not kilts.
26 February 1848   "Hal's rgt 74th is in Dublin & he is so gay with castle balls & I suppose he cannot come to us."  Letter from James Palmer, Sr., on the Isle of Man, to Thomas Palmer in Michigan (Palmer Letters 1841-1883).
10 November 1848 Lieutenant 74th Highland Regiment.  Promoted without purchase.
April 1850   Stationed at Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland.
1851-1853   10th Kaffir War, South Africa.  A Kaffir is Bantu-speaking tribe of Africa.  There was a series of wars against the Kaffirs before this one reaching back to the Napoleonic period. Henry Wellington was present in South Africa throughout the war. He received the campaign medal for this war.
26 February 1852   Sinking of the Birkenhead paddle steam ship off the coast of South Africa.  Of the 438 who drowned, Colonel Seton and Ensign Russell as well as 44 out of the 66 men of the 74th on that ship drowned.  Seton insured that the women and children were saved and the soldiers and the sailors resolutely stood firm to insure that the life boats would not be swamped.  Henry Wellington was not on this ship, but he must have been inspired by the story of his comrades.
17 August 1852 Captain 74th Highland Regiment. Most junior Captain in the regiment.  His statement of service is very difficult to read and the date of his captaincy looks like 17 September 1853.
From 4 October 1853 to 1 February 1856   Crimean War, Henry Wellington regretted that he was not involved in the war to hasten promotion. 
25 May 1856   Stationed at Madras Presidency, East Indies.  He may have been living there as early as 1854.
From 10 May 1857 to 19 June 1858   Great Mutiny of the native troops (sepoys) in northern India.  Henry Wellington was stationed in southern India and saw no real action.
1 April 1863 Captain Senior Captain in the regiment.  He was back in Ireland in 1863.
8 August 1864 Major 90th Regiment of Foot (aliases: Perthshire Volunteers or Light Infantry, a Lowland Scottish unit). Exchanged Major, 90th Light Infantry.
4 October 1864 Major Major in Army.
February 1868   Stationed at Subathoo, Punjab, East Indies.
1 April 1873 Lieutenant Colonel 90th Perthshire Regiment.
19 June 1878   Served with distinction as the commander of the 90th Perthshire Regiment at Fort Beaufort, South Africa, during the 11th Kaffir War.
11 November 1878   Nominated C.B. (Companion of the Bath), the Most Honorable Order of the Bath.
13 November 1878 Major General Honorary rank of Major General, retired from the 90th Perthshire Regiment.  He spent 32 years, 3 months, and 6 days in the service.
From 11 January 1879 to 28 August 1879   Zulu War, Henry Wellington's retirement allowed him to miss this war.  The 90th played an important role in suppressing the Zulus.
1881   The 74th Highland Regiment was united with the 71st Highland Regiment to form the 2nd Battalion of the Highland Light Infantry.  The 90th Perthshire Light Infantry was linked with the 26th Cameronian Regiment to form the 2nd Battalion of the Cameronians or Scottish Rifles.
1886   Lieutenant Colonel with the honorary rank of Major General. The Army List (1886) shows crossed swords next to his name. This indicates that he is an officer who saw war service.
1889   Last appearance in the Army List (1889).
Sources: Army List; Delavoue (1880); Oatts (1952-1963); Palmer Letters (1841-1883); Regimental Records (1914); Statement of the Services of Henry Wellington Palmer; Swinnerton 1996).

Note: In the Army List there is an Henry W. Palmer who was made an Ensign with the 36th Herefordshire Regiment on 11 January 1839.  He was made Lieutenant on 22 July 1842 and was senior Lieutenant on 20 January 1847.  On 25 February 1848, he was made a Captain in the 36th.  Initially, I thought this was Henry Wellington Palmer, however, none of this data corresponds with his service record.

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Lieutenant Colonel Henry Wellington Tuthill Palmer, D. S. O.

He was the son of Major General Henry Wellington Palmer and Margaret Dartnell Tuthill and born around 1886.  Until very recently, all that I knew about him was that he was Lieutenant in the Corps of Royal Engineers on 4 December 1908 when he registered his coat-of-arms with the Irish herald (Wilkerson 1908).  I often wondered what became of young Henry Wellington.  Did he die on the Somme?  Is he buried in Flanders or Picardy?  

Now I know, thanks to Debrett's Baronetage, Knightage, and Companionage (Hesilrige 1931, 1968), that he survived the war.  He was born in 1886 and educated at Wellington College.  According to Farwell (1981, 142), this college sent more students to Sandhurst than the other military school.  Since he became an engineer, it is more likely that he went to Woolwich, the Royal Military Academy for the artillery and engineers, after leaving Wellington.  By 1931, he was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Royal Engineers.  Moreover, during World War I he was mentioned in dispatches.  As a result, he was made a companion of the Distinguished Service Order in 1918.  In 1924, he married Cynthia Tugwell, the daughter of the late H. W. Tugwell, of Crowe Hall, near Bath, England.

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Captain Henry Palmer

This is a relative of your Palmers.  His father was Rev. Arthur Palmer, son of Rev. Thomas Palmer, County Longford, Ireland, and thus brother of Rev. Henry Palmer, the father of your James Sr.  Consequently, Henry Palmer and James, Sr., were first cousins.   Henry was born around 1793 probably in Ireland.  According to the Saunders' News Letter (quoted in Leslie 1933, 380):

Died 11 May, 1823, aged 30, at Sierra Leone [West Africa], Rev. Henry Palmer, youngest son of Rev. Arthur Palmer, late Chancellor of St. Canice's, lately sent out as Chaplain to the Colony of Freetown.  His constitution was broken by long service in the 23rd Royal Fusiliers in the Peninsula and at Waterloo.  He left a young wife.

On 11 Apr. 1811 he was a Captain in the 23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers (Army List 1817).  He would have served under the Duke of Wellington in Portugal and Spain and fought with him against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo.

There is a record of a Captain Henry Palmer, Prince of Wales Infantry, marrying on 23 October 1799 at St. Anne, Dublin, to Catherine Cullen ("Irish Records Extraction Database" 2000).  However, this is unlikely to be your relative as he would be too young to marry in 1799.

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The Palmers taken together put in more than 100 years of military service for the British Crown.  They served in the West Indies, South Africa, and India as well as being stationed in England, Ireland, and Scotland between foreign stations.  Although the military career of James Palmer, Sr., was not remarkable, he contributed in his own way to the defeat of Napoleon and gave to England two sons to help build an empire.

There is much more to learn about the Palmers.  I would like to get a better idea of how they fit into general Anglo-Irish society.  How did they interact with their relatives who served in the Church of Ireland?  Were any Palmers in the government?  Were there any other Palmers in the military?  What role did Thomas Palmer play in the East India Company?  If time permits, then perhaps I will make more progress on this crew.  Moreover, I welcome others in the family to investigate the Palmers and let me know what you find.  I will update this web page accordingly.

One last comment.  For me, as an American of Irish and French ancestry, I have some difficulty appreciating the grandeur of the British empire.  It is now gone.  Only the shadow of the Commonwealth still holds on.   Those men who died in the Australia, New Zealand, Canada, West Indies, South Africa, India, and all the other corners of the globe once held by the United Kingdom are slowly being forgotten.  However, the Palmers were enthusiastic supporters of the British empire.  James, Sr., wrote to his son Thomas, in a letter dated 4 April 1842 (Palmer Letters 1841-1883): "The India News is very bad--our troops murdered & beat in Afganistan--but 10,000 men are going out & England's Flag will wave over all India, & conquer wherever it is unfurled."  Clearly, he had a heart felt attraction to the British empire that he, his sons, his cousins, and grandson served.

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Annual Register.  1850.  Death notice for Major James Palmer (15 May), p. 229.  On microfilm at the University of Michigan, Hatcher Graduate Library.

Anonymous Letter.  2000.  Sent to John P. DuLong (16 August).  [For the time being, I believe this person would like to remain anonymous.]

Army List.  This was a series published regularly from 1754 to 1950. 

I used issues between 1794 and 1890.  The Clements Historical Library at the University of Michigan has a good collection from about 1750 to 1866.  The Family History Library has others going up to and beyond 1890.

Barns, R. Money.  1956.  The Uniforms and History of the Scottish Regiments: Britain—Canada—Australia—New Zealand—South Africa, 1625 to the Present Day.  London: Seeley Service & Co., Ltd.

Bartlett, Thomas, and Keith Jeffery, eds.  1996.  A Military History of Ireland.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Buckley, Roger Norman.  1979.  Slaves in Red Coats: The British West India Regiments, 1795-1815.  New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

__________.  1998.  The British Army in the West Indies: Society and the Military in the Revolutionary Age.  Gainseville, FL: University Press of Florida.

Bunt, E. F. 1981.  Letter to Patricia A. DuLong, Royal Oak, Michigan, from E. F. Bunt, 8A Fulford Road, West Ewell, Surrey KT19 9QX, England.

Letter includes a photocopy of the "Statement of the Service of Brevet Major James Palmer."

Burton, Edwin.  2000.  "Sandemanians."  The Catholic Encyclopedia.  Available at (26 May).

Carey, Tim.  2000.  Mountjoy: The Story of a Prison.  Wilton, County Cork, Ireland: The Collins Press.

Chartrand, René.  1996.  British Forces in the West Indies 1793-1815.   Illustrated by Paul Chappell.  London: Osprey, Men-at-Arms Series, no. 294.

Chichester, Henry Manners, and George Burges-Short.  1900.  The Records and Badges of Every Regiment and Corps in the British Army.  2nd ed.   London: Gale & Polden, Ltd.

Delavoye, Alexander Marin.  1880.  Records of the 90th Regiment (Perthshire Light Infantry), with Roll of Officers from 1795 to 1880.  London: Richardson.

Deputy Keeper of the Public Records.  1899.  Appendix to the Thirtieth Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records and Keeper of the State Papers in Ireland: An Index to the Act or Grant Books and Original Wills of the Diocese of Dublin from 1800 to 1858.  Dublin: Alexander Thom & Co., Ltd.

Farwell, Byron.  1972.  Queen Victoria's Little Wars.  New York: W. W. Norton & Co.

__________.  1981.  Mr. Kipling's Army: All the Queen's Men.   New York: W. W. Norton & Co.

Finnane, Mark.  1981.  Insanity and the Insane in Post-Famine Ireland.   Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble Books. 

Fortescue, John William.  1899-1935.  A History of the British Army.   13 vols. in 14.  London: Macmillian & Co., Ltd.

Vol. IV, parts I & II, covers the 1789-1801 period and Abercromby's campaign in the West Indies.

Fowler, Simon, and William Spencer.  1998.  Army Records for the Family Historians.  Richmond, Surrey, England: Public Record Office, Readers' Guide no. 2.

Frederick, J. B. M.  1984.  Lineage Book of British Land Forces 1660-1978.   2 vols.  Rev. Ed.  East Ardsley, England: Microform Academic Publishers.

Goodwill, Frank.  2000.  "Africans in Redcoats."  Web site dedicated to Black West Indies soldiers.  Available at (30 May).

Handcock, William Domville.  1899.  The History and Antiquities of Tallaght in the County of Dublin.  2nd ed.  Dublin: Hodges, Figgis, & Co., Ltd.

Henderson, Diana M.  1993.  The Scottish Regiments.  Glasgow, Scotland: HarperCollins Publishers.

Hesilrige, Arthur G. M., ed.  1931.  Debtrett's Baronetage, Knightage, and Companionage.  London: Dean & Son, Ltd.

"Highland Light Infantry" Web Page.  2000.  Available at (4 June).

Hoskyn Letters.  1832-1857.  Letters between various members of the Hoskyns and Arkwright families of England, Ireland, and Canada.  Originals in possession of Hungerford R. L. Hoskyns, Avon, England.  Typscript copies in possession of Patricia Anne (McGuinness) DuLong.

"Irish Records Extraction Database."  2000.  Available at, subscription necessary (12 July).  

Kelly, Freida.  1988.  A History of Kilmainham Gaol: The Dismal House of Little Ease.  Dublin: Mercier Press.

Kerr, Iain.  2000.  Email to John P. DuLong, "RE: Palmers in the British Military Web Page" (10 August).

Leslie, James B.  1933.  Ossory Clergy and Parishes: Being an Account of the Clergy of the Church of Ireland in the Diocese of Ossory, from the Earliest Period, with Historical Notices of the Several Parishes, Churches, &c.  Enniskillen, Ireland: Fermanagh Times Office.

This source has great biographical information on Rev. Henry Palmer and his brother Rev. Arthur Palmer (see 87, 108, 164, 272, 314, 317, 380, and 384).

Lewis, Samuel.  [1837] 1984..  A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland.   Reprint ed.  Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.

"Palmer, Major James, Milltown, co. Dublin" is listed as one of the subscribers in 1837 (1:liii).

McDowell, Robert Brendan.  1964.  The Irish Administration, 1801-1914.   Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Military Panorama. 1813. The Royal Military Panorama, or Officers'Companion for April 1813, (London: P. Martin, 1813), 2:277-278 and 479.

Mills, T. F.  2000.  "Land Forces of Britain, the Empire and Commonwealth."  Available at   (30 May).

Oatts, Lewis B.  1952-1963.  Proud Heritage: The Story of the Highland Light Infantry.  4 vols.  New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd.

O'Byrne, Eileen. 2001. Letter and research report to Mr. and Mrs. John P. DuLong (13 October).

Palmer, James. 1832.  A Treatise on the Modern System of Governing Gaols, Penitentiaries, and Houses of Correction, with a View to Moral Improvement and Reformation of Character; Also, a Detail of the Duties of Each Department of a Prison, Together with some Observations on the State of Prison Discipline, at Home and Abroad, and on the Management of Lunatic Asylums.  Dublin: Privately printed at William Holden, 23 Wellington-Quay.

Palmer Letters.  1841-1883.  Letters between various members of the Palmer, O'Toole, and Taaffe families of Ireland, India, and Michigan.  Originals in the possession of Emma Jane (Conklin) Nelson, M.D., Troy, Michigan.  Photocopies in the possession of Patricia Anne (McGuinness) DuLong.

"Perthshire Volunteers" Web Page.  2000.  Available at (4 June).

Regimental Records, 2nd Battalion, Highland Light Infantry (Old 74th).   1914.  Glasgow: John Horn, Ltd.

Scottish Military Historical Society.  2000.  "Lineage of the Scottish Regiments Index Page."  Available at (30 May).

"Statement of the Service of Brevet Major James Palmer 3d Garrison Battn. and Brigade Major North British Staff.  Copper, Oct. 23d 1809"  1809.   Public Record Office,War Office [W. O] 25/747, Regimental Description and Succession Books, p. 82.   Photocopy attached to Bunt 1981 letter.

"Statement of the Services of Henry Wellington Palmer of the 74th Highlanders."  N. d.  Public Record Office, England, War Office [W.O.] 76, Record of Officers Services, 1770-1919.  Family History microfilm reel 917269.

"Statement of the Services of James Palmer of the 3rd W. I. Regt. of Foot."   N. d.  Public Record Office, England, War Office [W. O.] 25, Regimental Description and Succession Books.  Family History microfilm reel 859524, f. 45 stamped, 77 hand written.

Stephens, Henry Morse.  1885-1901.  "Abercromby, Sir Ralph."  Dictionary of National Biography.  66 vols.  London: Smith, Elder, & Co., vol. 1, pp. 43-46.

Swinnerton, Iain.  1996.  The British Army: Its History, Tradition and Records.  Lancashire, England: The Federation of Family History Societies, Ltd.

Swinson, Arthur, ed.  1972.  A Register of the Regiments and Corps of the British Army: The Ancestry of the Regiments and Corps of the Regular Establishment. London: The Archive Press. 

For summaries of British regimental histories.

Vesey Genealogy.  Late Eighteenth Century.  "A Memoir of John Vesey, Archbishop of Tuam.  With Pedigrees of Each of His Fourteen Children."   Compiled by Letitia Balfour of Townley Hall.  Dublin: National Library of Ireland, Mss. 3100.

Werlich, Robert.  1965.  Orders and Decorations of all Nations, Ancient and Modern, Civil and Military.  Washington, DC: Quaker Press.

White, A. S.  1960.  "Garrison, Reserve, and Veteran Battalions and Companies."  Society for Army Historical Research Journal 38 (December): 156-167.

White, James Grove.  [1905-1918] 1969.  Historical and Topographical Notes, Etc., on Buttevant, Castletownroche, Doneraile, Mallow, and Places in their Vicinity.  4 vols.  Cork: Guy and Co.  Reprint ed.  Birmingham, AL: Amite and Knocknagree Historical Fund.

Wilkinson, Nevile Rodwell, Ulster King of Arms and Principal Herald of All Ireland.   1908.  "Confirmation of Palmer."  In Ulster's Office: Grants and Confirmations, J, 111, 235-236.  Genealogical Office [G. O.] Ms. 111 (4 December).

Wood, Sir Henry Evelyn.  1906.  From Midshipman to Field Marshal.   2 vols.  3rd ed.  New York: E. P. Dutton & Co.


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