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A Royal Lineage: The Generations Between Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland,
and Patricia Anne (McGuinness) DuLong

28 July 2002

John P. DuLong, Ph.D., and Patricia A. (McGuinness) DuLong

Prepared for the 2002 Annual McGuinness Family Reunion

Please cite, quote, or photocopy only with
the written permission of the authors.

This summary lineage shows the connection between the great High King of Ireland, Brian Bóruma (more often called Boru) and Patricia Anne (McGuinness) DuLong. It stretches over a thousand years, counts thirty-four generations, and goes from Ireland to England to Scotland back to Ireland and then to Michigan. This report is based in part on our published article:

DuLong, John P., and Patricia Anne (McGuinness) DuLong. "Thomas W.[1] Palmer, 1822-1865, of Ireland and Michigan: His Descent from James II, King of Scots." The Genealogist 19:1 (Spring 2005): 44-61.

In this summary we only provide references to the main published and manuscript sources we used. Complete documentation of the royal lineage back to James II, including references to the manuscripts we used from the Genealogical Office of the National Library of Ireland, will be found in our published article.

Royal Lineage

  1. Brian Bóruma (Borama, Boroimhe, or Boru) "of the Tributes," (fl. 941-1014), King of the Dál Cais of Munster, King of Munster, and High King of Ireland (r. 1002-1014). Assassinated immediately after his victory over the combined army of Norsemen and Leinstermen at the battle of Clontarf on Good Friday 23 April 1014.

    m. about 1000, Ireland.

    Gormflaith of Naas (fl. ?-1030), daughter of Murchad, King of Leinster, and widow of Anlaf (Olaf), Norse King of Dublin, and divorced [discarded?] wife of Máel-Sechnaill, High King of Ireland.

    Sources: Baldwin (19967; 1997); Kelley (1980, 13-14, 22); Weis (1992, line 175-1).

    The parents of

  2. Donnchad (fl. ?-1064), King of Munster (r. 1023-1064), died on pilgrimage to Rome in 1064.

    m. about 1020-1030, Ireland.

    He was married to a daughter of the Norse leader, Ragnall, and also to Druella, a daughter of Godwin of Kent in England, but it is not known who was the mother to Darb-forgaill.

    Sources: Baldwin (1996; 1997); Kelley (1980, 23); Weis (1992, line 175-2).

    The father of

  3. Darb-forgaill (fl. ?-1080).

    m. about 1045-1055, Ireland.

    Diarmait (Dermot) MacMáel-na-mBó (fl. ?-1072), King of the Uí Chennselaig (Kinsale) of Leinster, later King of Leinster, King of Osraige (Ossory), and overlord of Dublin.

    Sources: Baldwin (1996; 1997); Kelley (1980, 8, 23); Weis (1992, line 175-3).

    The parents of

  4. Murchad (fl. ?-1070).

    m. about 1060-1070, Ireland.

    Sabd, probably daughter of Muirchertach MacBricc, King of the Déise (Dessi) in Munster.

    Sources: Baldwin (1996; 1997); Kelley (1980, 8, 21); Weis (1992, line 175-4).

    The parents of

  5. Donnchad MacMurchada (fl. ?-1115), King of Dublin, killed in battle.

    m. about 1090-1100, Ireland.

    Orlaith, daughter of an unknown father and Iuchdelb.

    Sources: Baldwin (1996; 1997); Kelley (1980, 8); Weis (1992, line 175-5).

    The parents of

  6. Diarmait MacMurchada (Dermot McMurrough) (fl. 1100-1171), King of Leinster (r. 1135-1171). He has gone down in Irish history as the person who invited the English into Ireland! He did so in an effort to reclaim his throne.

    m. about 1140, Leinster, Ireland.

    Mor (fl. ?-1164), daughter of Muirchertach Ua Tuathail (O'Toole), King of Uí Muiredaig and Cacht of Leix. She was half-sister to St. Lorcan Ua Tuathail (St. Lawrence O'Toole), Abbot of Glendalough and Archbishop of Dublin (fl. ?-1180).

    Sources: Baldwin (1996; 1997); Kelley (1980, 8, 12); Weis (1992, line 175-6).

    The parents of

  7. Aífe (Eve) of Leinster (fl. 1141- after 1186).

    m. 26 August 1171, Waterford, Co. Waterford, Ireland.

    Richard Fitzgilbert de Clare, "Strongbow" (fl. 1130-1176), 2nd Earl of Pembroke, Justiciar of Ireland. His parents were Gilbert de Clare and Isabel (or Elizabeth) de Beaumont. He was one of the leading Anglo-Normans who invaded Ireland at the invitation of his future father-in-law. He was promised the hand of Aífe and the kingdom of Leinster upon the death of his father-in-law. However, around 1172, Henry II, King of England, intervened and Strongbow had to declare homage and fealty to the English king.

    Sources: Baldwin (1996; 1997); Complete Peerage (IV:670 chart, V:736 chart, IX:590, X:352-357; XIV:521) ; Kelley (1980, 8-9); Weis (1992, line 175-7).

    The parents of

  8. Isabel Fitzgilbert de Clare (fl. 1172-1220), in her own right Countess of Pembroke.

    m. August 1189, London, Middlesex, England.

    Sir William Marshall (fl. 1146-1219), 4th Earl of Pembroke, Marshal of England, and Regent of the kingdom (1216-1219) during the minority of Henry III, King of England. His parents were John Fitzgilbert, "the Marshal," and Sibyl de Salisbury. He was considered in his own life time as one of the finest examples of knighthood in England and Western Europe. He jousted in many tournaments and won far more than he ever lost. And he went on a Crusade to the Holy Land around 1183.

    Sources: Complete Peerage (IV:670 chart, V:695, 736 chart; X:358-364, Appendix G 96-97); Weis (1992, line 66-27).

    The parents of

  9. Isabel Marshall (fl. 1206-1240).

    m. 9 October 1217, England.

    Sir Gilbert de Clare (fl. 1180-1230), 7th Earl of Clare, 4th Earl of Gloucester, and 4th Earl of Hertford. Son of Richard de Clare and Amice of Gloucester. He was one of the barons who gave surety for the other barons at the signing of the Magna Charta in 1215.

    Sources: Complete Peerage (III:244; V:694-695, 736 chart; VI:503; X:364); Weis (1992, line 63-28; 1999, line 41-2).

    The parents of

  10. Isabel de Clare (fl. 1226-before 1275).

    m. May 1240, in Scotland or England.

    Sir Robert de Brus, "the Competitor" (fl. 1210-1294), 5th Laird of Annandale. His parents were Robert de Brus and Isabella of Huntingdon. As a descendant of David I, King of Scots, he was one of the competitors for the crown of Scotland after the accidental death of King Alexander III, hence his nickname.

    Sources: Complete Peerage (III:56; V:695, 736 chart) Scots Peerage (II:430-432, IX:55); Weis (1992, line 252-28).

    The parents of

  11. Robert de Brus (Bruce) (fl. 1243-1304), 6th Laird of Annandale, 3rd Earl of Carrick, by right of his wife. Served in the English Parliament (1295). He was allied to the English crown.

    m. 1271, Turnberry Castle, Ayrshire, Scotland.

    Margaret (or Marjorie) (fl. 1252-1292), Countess of Carrick in her own right, daughter and heir of Neil, 2nd Earl of Carrick.

    Sources: Complete Peerage (III:55-56); Scots Peerage (II:426-427, 432-435); Weis (1992, line 252-29).

    The parents of

  12. Robert I "the Bruce" (fl. 1274-1329), 7th Laird of Annandale, 4th Earl of Carrick. King of Scots (r. 1306-1329). The great hero of Scotland who gained its independence from England at the victory of Bannockburn on 24 June 1314.

    m. about 1295, Scotland.

    Isabel (alias Mathilda) (fl. ?-before 1302), daughter of Donald, 6th Earl of Mar, and Helen, daughter of Llewelyn ap Iowerth, "the Great," Prince of North Wales.

    Sources: Complete Peerage (III:56; VIII:402-403 and chart); Scots Peerage (I:7-8; II-433, 435; V:577-578); Weis (1992, lines 176-7; 252-30).

    The parents of

  13. Marjorie Bruce (fl. 1297-1315/16), Princess of Scotland.

    m. 1315, Scotland.

    Walter Stewart (fl. 1292-1327), 6th High Steward of Scotland. He was the son of James Stewart, 5th High Steward, and Eigidia, daughter of Walter de Burgh, 1st Earl of Ulster (another descendant of Brian Bóruma). Walter was one of the field commanders of the Scottish army at the battle of Bannockburn. For his valorous service he received the hand of the king's daughter. Throughout the Scottish War of Independence, Walter played an active role. He served as Regent during King Robert I's absence in Ireland.

Sources: Complete Peerage (I:310); Scots Peerage (I:8, 14-15); Weis (1992, lines 65A-26; 69-28; 75-28; 75A-30; 252-31).

The parents of

  1. Robert II (fl. 1316-1390), 7th High Steward of Scotland, 16th Earl of Atholl, 10th Earl of Strathearn, King of Scots (r. 1371-1390). He succeeded to the throne on the death of his uncle, David II. Robert was the first king of the Stewart dynasty. This royal houses was consistently marked with tragic deaths, abrupt accessions to the throne, long and discordant regencies, and disturbing decisions with sad consequences.

    m. after a Papal disposition dated 24 November 1347, Scotland.

    Elizabeth (fl. ?-before 1355), daughter of Sir Adam Mure of Rowallan.

    Sources: Complete Peerage (I:310-311; XII/1:389); Scots Peerage (I:15-17; VIII:259); Weis (1992, line 252-32).

    Parents of

  2. Robert III (fl. 1337-1406), 9th Earl of Carrick, King of Scots (r. 1390-1406). His real name was John, but he adopted the name Robert when he ascended the Scottish throne. This was due to the name John being considered unlucky because of past kings of Scotland and England with that name who were failures. He was legitimized through the papal disposition of his parent's marriage in 1347.

    m. about 1367, Scotland.

    Annabella (fl. ?-1401), daughter of Sir John Drummond of Stobhall and Mary de Montifex.

    Sources: Complete Peerage (III:58); Scots Peerage (I:17-18; II:438). Weis (1992, line 252-33).

    Parents of

  3. James I (fl. 1394-1437), 11th Earl of Carrick, 2nd Duke of Rothesay, King of Scots (r. 1406-1437). This king had the misfortune of getting captured at sea by the English in 1406. He was released in 1424. During his captivity he composed the The Kingis Quair [The King's Book] in which he describes how he fell in love with Joan Beaufort, his future wife. This poem is noted as an important contribution to early Scottish literature. He was murdered at Perth, Scotland. The assassins were led by Sir Robert Graham and the king's own uncle, Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl and Strathearn was implicated in the plot.

    m. about 1424, England.

    Joan (Jane or Johanna) Beaufort (fl. ?-1445). She was the daughter of John Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Somerset, and Margaret de Holand. The Earl of Somerset was the illegitimate son of John of Gaunt, 2nd Duke of Lancaster, and Catherine de Roët, widow of Sir Hugh Swynford. John of Gaunt was in turn the son of Edward III, King of England, and Philippa of Hainault. Thus Joan Beaufort is the great-granddaughter of Edward III.
  4. Sources: Complete Peerage (I:312; III:58-59; VII:410-416; XI:209; XII/1:39-45); Scots Peerage (I:18-19, 440-441; VIII:312-313); Weis (1992, line 252-34).

The parents of

  1. James II (fl. 1430-1460), due to a birthmark on his face he was known as "James of the Fiery Face," 3rd Duke of Rothesay, King of Scots (r. 1437-1460). More famous for the manor of his death than for his life. A great enthusiast for the new technology of artillery. James II was killed when a cannon he was firing accidentally burst during the siege of Roxburgh Castle.

    m. 3 July 1449, Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.

    Marie (fl. ?-1463), daughter of Arnold (or Arnulf), Duke of Gueldres in the Netherlands, and Catherine of Cleves.

Sources: Complete Peerage (XI:209); Scots Peerage (I:19-20; VIII:312-313); Weis (1992, line 252-35).

The parents of

  1. Mary Stewart, (fl. ?-1488), Princess of Scotland.

    m. around April 1474, Scotland.

    Sir James Hamilton (fl. ?-1479), Lord [Baron] of Cadzow and 1st Lord Hamilton. Due to this marriage into the royal family, the Hamiltons became the heirs presumptive of the Scottish throne for at least the next hundred years should the Stewarts fail to produce an heir. Despite the tragic fates of most of the Stewart rulers, the Hamiltons never had their chance to become king.

    Sources: Complete Peerage (VI:254-255); Scots Peerage (I:20; IV:349-353).

The parents of

  1. James Hamilton (fl. 1475-1529), 2nd Lord Hamilton and 2nd Earl of Arran. He took a prominent, but wavering, contradictory, and self-centered role in the affairs of the Scottish kingdom. He was involved in several intrigues against John Stewart, the Duke of Albany and the regent of Scotland during the minority of James V. He was the Lieutenant-General of Scotland, Warden of the East March, and one of the six Lords of the Regency from 1517 to 1521 while the Duke of Albany went to France. It was during this period that he and his son, Sir James Hamilton of Finnart, became involved in the notorious"Cleansing of the Causeway" in 1520. This was a street brawl in Edinburgh between the Douglases supporting the Earl of Angus and the Hamilton followers of the Earl of Arran. The result was that the Hamiltons had to flee the capital.

    m. ?

    The Earl of Arran had several illegitimate children. Sir James was his eldest illegitimate son and was legitimized in 1512/13. His mother may have been a Boyd.

    1. Sources: Complete Peerage (I:220-221; VI:256); Scots Peerage (I:20; IV:355-362).

The father of

  1. Sir James Hamilton of Finnart, "the Bastard of Arran" (fl. ?-1540). Because Sir James is a such a controversial figure in Scottish History, we will let the historian James Taylor summarize his life for you:

    1. ... James Hamilton of Finnart, was a person of remarkable energy, and was the principal architect in Scotland of his time. He was a great favourite with James V., who appointed him Cup-bearer and Steward of the Royal Household, and Master of Works to the King. He superintended the erection of the palaces of Falkland and Linlithgow; and, under his direction, the castles of Edinburgh, Stirling, and Blackness, and the palace of Holyrood were enlarged and adorned. The King, whose fine taste is architecture, sculpture, and painting enabled him to appreciate Hamilton's merits, bestowed on him several valuable estates, among others the lands of Draphen in Lanarkshire, on which Sir James erected the strong and stately castle of Craignethan—the Tillietudlem of "Old Mortality." His character, however, was stained by numerous acts of cruelty and oppression, into which his fierce and passionate temper hurried him. [In particular, he murdered John Stewart, Earl of Lennox, after his surrender in 1526 at the battle of Linlithgow.] He took a prominent part in the sanguinary persecution of the Protestants at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and no hand was more deeply stained than his with the blood of his own relative, the saintly Patrick Hamilton, who suffered martyrdom in 1528. He ultimately fell into disgrace at Court, was accused of treason and embezzlement, and having been found guilty, was beheaded in 1540. He was undoubtedly the ablest and most accomplished man the house of Hamilton has ever produced; and if he had occupied the position of his feeble father, and still feebler brother, he would have been the supreme ruler of Scotland during the troubled minority of James V. and his daughter, the ill-starred Queen Mary.

m. ?

The mother of Elizabeth Hamilton is unknown at this time. However, it is very likely that she was one of the many illegitimate children sired by Sir James.

Sources: Dictionary of National Biography (VIII:1050-151); Scots Peerage (IV:357-358, 360-362); Taylor (1889, 1:211-212).

The father of

  1. Elizabeth Hamilton (fl. ?-after 1576). Contrary to the statements of other scholars, Elizabeth is not a daughter of Sir Alexander Hamilton of Innerwick. We have found evidence to indicate that she is a daughter of Sir James Hamilton of Finnart. Complete details about this evidence will be published in our full report on the royal ancestry of Thomas W. Palmer.

    m. before 1548, Scotland.

    John Maxwell (fl. ?-1572), 8th Laird of Calderwood, Lanarkshire, Scotland. Son of Robert Maxwell, 6th Laird of Calderwood, and Isabella Elphinstone. He reportedly sat in the Scottish Parliament (1560). Although a strong adherent of the reformed Protestant church, he was a supporter of the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots.

    Sources: Anderson (1825, 310); Burke's Peerage (I:1036); Fraser (1863, 469, 471); Lodge (1789, 3:389-390).

    The parents of

  2. The Very Reverend Robert Maxwell (fl. ?-after 1610), Dean of Armagh, Protestant Church of Ireland. M. A. (1578 or 1588), University of Glasgow. James VI, King of Scots (later James I, King of England), sent him to Ireland to secure Scotland's interests there near the end of reign of Elizabeth I, Queen of England, probably in the late 1590s.

    m. about 1590-1600, Scotland.

    It is unclear if Susan Armstrong or Isabella Seaton of Lathrisk, Fife, Scotland, is the mother of Elizabeth Maxwell.

    Sources: Foster (1882-1883, 1:24); Fraser (1863, 471); Leslie (1911, 12-13, 197; 1993, 492); Lodge (1789, 3:390).

The father of

  1. Elizabeth Maxwell (fl. ?-1635) .

    m. about 1620-1625, Ireland or Scotland.

    The Very Reverend Robert Barclay (fl. ?-1654), Dean of Clogher, Protestant Church of Ireland. B. A. (1610) and M. A. 1618, University of Glasgow. B. D. and D. D. (1621), Trinity College, Dublin. He was born in Scotland and settled in Ireland before 1620.

    Sources: Burtchaell and Sadleir (1935, 40); Foster (1882-1883, 1:24); Leslie (1911, 12-13; 1929, 32; 1993, 492); University of Glasgow (1854, 3:11, 68).

    The parents of

  2. Marie Barclay (fl. 1624-1671).

    m. about 1645-1655, Ireland.

    Henry Cope (fl. 1615-1670) of Loughgall, Co. Armagh, Ireland. Son of Anthony Cope, of Castle Raw, Drumilly, and Loughgall, Co. Armagh, Ireland, and Elizabeth Sheffield.

    Sources: Foster (1882-1883, 1:24); Cope (1902, 215-216).

    The parents of

  3. Elizabeth Cope (fl. ?-1714).

    m. about 1685-1690, Ireland.

    The Very Reverend Anthony Cope (fl. 1639-1705), Dean of Elphin, Protestant Church of Ireland. B. A. (1683) and M. A. (1686), Trinity College, Dublin. Son of Anthony Cope, of Portadown, Co. Armagh, Ireland, and Jane Moigne. Elizabeth and Anthony were third cousin.
  4. Sources: Burtchaell and Sadleir (1935, 177); Cope (1902, 216, 219-220).

The parents of

  1. Dr. Henry Cope (fl. 1684-1743), a prominent Dublin physician. Graduate of Leyden University, the Netherlands (1708). M. D. (1718), Trinity College, Dublin. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in Ireland (1723). Regius Professor of Physic [Medicine] at Trinity College, Dublin (1738-1743).

    m. about 1710-1720, Ireland.

    Mary Page (fl. ?-1761), parents unknown.
  2. Sources: Burtchaell and Sadleir (1935, 177); Cope (1902, 220); Peacock (1883, 23).

The parents of

  1. Mary Cope (fl. ?-1754).

    m. about 1735, Ireland.

    The Reverend Thomas Palmer (fl. 1707-1774), Protestant Church of Ireland. B. A. (1729) and M. A. (1732), Trinity College, Dublin. Son of Patrick Palmer and N... Walsh, from Co. Longford, Ireland.

    Sources: Cope (1902, 220); Palmer Pedigree Sketch.

    The parents of

  2. The Venerable Henry Palmer (fl. 1740-1801), Archdeacon of Ossory, Protestant Church of Ireland. B. A. (1761) and M. A. (1764) Trinity College, Dublin.

    m. 15 October 1774, probably in Dublin, Ireland.

    Elinor (or Eleanor) Smyth (fl. 1754-1788), daughter of Edward Smyth and Eleanor Ralphson.
  3. Sources: Burtchaell and Sadleir (1935, 651); Leslie (1933, 108, 164, 314, 316, 317); Palmer Pedigree Sketch; Wilkinson (1908).

The parents of

  1. Major James Palmer (fl. 1780-1850), retired British army officer, Inspector General of Prisons and Lunatic Asylums in Ireland.

    m. The marital status of mother of Thomas W. Palmer is uncertain.

    The Major was married twice, but his son Thomas was probably illegitimate. His first wife was Ellen de Renzi (fl. 1765-1827), daughter of Annesley Howes Derenzy and Sarah King of Co. Wicklow, Ireland, whom he married in 1800 in Dublin. She was too old to be the mother of Thomas. For a number of circumstantial reasons, we believe his mother might have been the second wife, Eliza Nash (fl. ?-1852), daughter of Llewellyn Nash and Priscilla Deane Spread, whom the Major married on 17 November 1827, Cork, Co. Cork, Ireland. If this is the case, then Thomas would have been born out of wedlock.
  2. Sources: Palmer Letters; Palmer Pedigree Sketch; Wilkinson (1908).

The father of

  1. Thomas William Palmer (fl. 1823-1865), Honourable East India Company sailor and farmer. He immigrated to the United States of America around 1841 from Dublin, Ireland. It is through Thomas W. Palmer that many of the McGuinnesses, Conklins, Morrisseys, and O'Raffertys of the United States descend from royalty. In genealogical terms, he is a "royal gateway ancestor."

    m. about 1848, Dexter area, Washtenaw Co., Michigan.

    Margaret O'Toole (fl. 1818-1905), daughter of Lawrence Patrick O'Toole and Margaret O'Laughlin. The O'Tooles were a middle class Irish Catholic family from Co. Wicklow. It is very likely that we will be able to trace them back several more generations. This is our next research project and we could use your support.
  2. Sources: Palmer Letters; Michigan Vital Records; U. S. Census Records; Xaveria (1928, 19-24).

The parents of

  1. Emma Palmer (1854-1938).

    m. about 1879, Jackson, Jackson Co., Michigan.

    James McGuinness (1841-1918), son of John McGuinness and Margaret Glennon. He was an Indian trader, farmer, and shopkeeper. His parents were from Hartstown, Co. Meath, Ireland, and immigrated to America around 1832.
  2. Sources: Michigan Vital Records; U. S. Federal Census Records.

The parents of

  1. John Parnell McGuinness (1887-1964). Graduate of Western Normal Teachers' College, University of Detroit, and University of Michigan with an M. A. He was a teacher, guidance counselor, and principal.

    m. 27 August 1912, Grand Rapids, Kent Co., Michigan.

    Petronella Mary Bek (1886-1964), daughter of Herbet Bek and Jacquamina "Minnie" Ostdyke. Her parents immigrated from Zeeland Province, the Netherlands, around 1888.
  2. Sources: Michigan Vital Records; U. S. Federal Census Records.

The parents of

  1. David Bek McGuinness (1920-1991), served in American army in European Theater, World War II, security guard at General Motors.

    m. 6 May 1950, Detroit, Wayne Co., Michigan.

    Pauline Alberta Curtis, daughter of William Luther Curtis and Agnes Melissa Mary Belle McOsker.
  2. Sources: Kansas Vital Records; Michigan Vital Records.

The parents of

  1. Patricia Anne McGuinness (1954- ), registered nurse and genealogist.

    m. 4 September 1976, Clawson, Oakland Co., Michigan.

    John Patrick DuLong, Ph.D. (1954- ), network support and genealogist. Son of Joseph Leo DuLong and Catherine Oliva Stanton. He shares royal ancestors with his wife through his descent from Philippe II "Auguste," King of France.
  2. Sources: (Jetté, DuLong, Gagné, Moreau, and Dubé 2001, 11, 18); Michigan Vital Records.

The parents of Marie Renée Adrienne DuLong (1981- ), Marie Angélique Belle DuLong (1984- ), and Marie Elise Gabrielle DuLong (1986- ).

    Sources: Michigan Vital Records.


Anderson, John. 1825. Historical and Genealogical Memoirs of the House of Hamilton; With Genealogical Memoirs of the Several Branches of the Family. Edinburgh: John Anderson, Jun.

Ashley, Mike. 1998. The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc.

Please note that this is a handy reference book listing the basic facts for each king and queen of England, Scotland, and Wales. The summaries for each of the royals are interesting. However, this books has to be used cautiously, especially in the earliest generations when the author does not always clearly differentiate between real and mythical rulers.

Baldwin, Stewart. 1996. "Eve of Leinster and Radnailt of Dublin." Usenet News posting to soc.genealogy.medieval (28 July and re-posted 26 February 1998).

Baldwin, Stewart. 1997. "Re: De Clare/Strongbow's Wife." Usenet News posting to soc.genealogy.medieval (19 January).

Burke's Peerage. Burke's Peerage & Baronetage. 1999. 106th ed. 2 vols. Crans, Switzerland: Burke's Peerage.

Burtchaell, George Dames, and Thomas Ulick Sadleir. 1935. Alumni Dublinenses: A Register of Students, Graduates, Professors, and Provosts of Trinity College, in the University of Dublin. New ed. Dublin: A. Thom & co., ltd.

Complete Peerage. The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant. 1910-1998. Ed. by George Edward Cokayne, Vicary Gibbs, H. Arthur Doubleday, Howard de Walden, Geoffrey H. White, and Peter William Hammond. 14 vols. London : St. Catherine Press.

Cope, Emma Elizabeth. 1902. "Pedigrees of the Family of Cope." Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, vol. 4, 3rd series, pp. 208-223.

Dictionary of National Biography. 1921-1922. 66 vols. Reprint. London: Oxford University Press.

Foster, Joseph. 1882-1883. "Funeral Certificates of the Nobility and Gentry of Ireland, 1607-1720," in Collectanea Genealogica .... 3 vols. London and Aylesbury: Privately printed by Hazell Watson and Biney.

Fraser, Sir William. 1863. Memoirs of the Maxwells of Pollok. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Privately printed.

Jetté, René, John Patrick DuLong, Roland-Yves Gagné, Gail F. Moreau, and Joseph A. Dubé. 2001. Table d'ascendance de Catherine Baillon (12 générations). Montréal: Société généalogique canadienne-française.

Kelley, David H. 1980. "The Ancestry of Eve of Leinster." The Genealogist 1:1 (Spring): 4-27.

Leslie, Rev. James B. 1911. Armagh Clergy and Parishes: Being an Account of the Clergy of the Church of Ireland in the Diocese of Armagh, From the Earliest Period, With Historical Notices of the Several Parishes, Churches &c. Dundalk: William Tempest.

Leslie, Rev. James B. 1929. Clogher Clergy and Parishes: Being an Account of the Clergy of the Church of Ireland in the Diocese of Clogher, From the Earliest Period, With Historical Notices of the Several Parishes, Churches, &c. Enniskillen, Ireland: Privately printed for the author at the Fermanagh Times Office.

Leslie, Rev. James B. 1933. Ossory Clergy and Parishes: Being an Account of the Clergy of the Church of Ireland in the Diocese of Ossory, From the Earliest Period, With Historical Notices of the Several Parishes, Churches, &c. Enniskillen: At the "Fermanagh Times" Office by R. H. Ritchie.

Leslie, Rev. James B. 1993. Clergy of Connor from Patrician Times to the Present Day. Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation and the Library Committee of the Dioceses of Down, Connor and Dromore by Dundalgan Press.

Lodge, John. 1789. The Peerage of Ireland: Or, A Genealogical History of the Present Nobility of that Kingdom. 7 vols. Dublin: James Moore.

Palmer Letters. 1841-1883. Letters between various members of the Palmer, O'Toole, and Taaffe families of Ireland, India, and Michigan. Originals in the possession of Emma Jane (Conklin) Nelson, M.D., Troy, Michigan. Photocopies in the possession of Patricia Anne (McGuinness) DuLong.

Palmer Pedigree Sketch. In Sir William Betham, "Betham Red Books: First and Second Series [also known as the Betham Pedigree Sketches]," mss. at the Genealogical Office, National Library of Ireland, Dublin, FHL microfilm 100121, ms. 274, vol. 14, pp. 227-232, and ms. 275, vol. 15, pp. 271-278. [Probably done around 1908 for the confirmation of the Palmer arms, long after the death of Sir William in 1853.]

Peacock, Edward. 1883. Index to English Speaking Students Who Have Graduated at Leyden University. London: Published for the Index Society by Longmans, Green & Co.

Scots Peerage. The Scots Peerage: Founded on Wood's Edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; Containing an Historical and Genealogical Account of the Nobility of that Kingdom. 1904-1914. Ed. By James Balfour Paul. 9 vols. Edinburgh: D. Douglas.

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Patricia A. (McGuinness) DuLong
959 Oxford Road
Berkley, Michigan 48072-2011
dulongj at or
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